What is Fiber, yarn and fabric ?

Fiber ( from Textile Terms and Definition )

A unit of matter characterized by flexibility, fineness, and high ratio of length to thickness. The most common plant fiber is cotton, which is typically spun into fine yarn for mechanical weaving or knitting into cloth. Cotton and polyester are the most commonly spun fibers in the world. Cotton is grown throughout the world. After harvesting it is ginned and prepared for yarn spinning. Polyester is extruded from polymers derived from natural gas and oil. Synthetic fibers are generally extruded in continuous strands of gel-state materials. These strands are drawn (stretched), annealed (hardened), and cured to obtain properties desirable for later processing.

Tufts of cotton fiber fabrieka.com

Yarn ( from Textile Terms and Definition )

Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textile, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or roapmaking. Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Embroidery threads are yarns specifically designed for needlework.

Different kind of sewing thread fabrieka.com
Cotton yarn fabrieka.com

Fabric ( from Textile Terms and Definition)

A manufactured assembly of fibers and /or yarns, which has substantial surface area in relation to its thickness and sufficient mechanical strength to give the assembly inherent cohesion.

Note :-   Fabrics are most commonly woven or knitted, but the term includes assemblies produced by lace making, tufting, felting, embroidery, net-making, and the so-called non-woven processes.

Woven fabric

Woven fabric is a textile that results from interlacements ( crossing each other at an angle of 90) in a specific pattern of two yarns one in length direction and other in width direction. In weaving, threads are always straight, running parallel either lengthwise (warp threads) or crosswise (weft threads) and the two are interlaced.

Men’s shirts made of woven fabrics fabrieka.com

Knitted fabric

Knitted fabric is a textile that results from knitting (Inter-looping). Its properties are distinct from woven fabric in that it is more flexible and can be more readily constructed into smaller pieces, making it ideal for socks and hats. In weaving, threads are always straight, running parallel either lengthwise (warp threads) or crosswise (weft threads) and the two are interlaced. By contrast, the yarn in knitted fabrics follows a meandering path (a course), forming symmetric loops (also called bights) symmetrically above and below the mean path of the yarn. These meandering loops can be easily stretched in different directions giving knit fabrics much more elasticity than woven fabrics. Depending on the yarn and knitting pattern, knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%.

Sweaters made of knitted fabrics fabrieka.com

Non-woven fabric

Non-woven fabric is a fabric-like material made from staple fiber (short) and long fibers (continuous long), bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment. 

A surgical mask made of non-woven fabric fabrieka.com

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